Israel was the first non-European country to share the European Union`s Framework Programme for Research and Technology Development (RDT). Israel`s special status is the result of its high scientific and research capabilities and the long-standing network of long-standing scientific and technical cooperation between Israel and the EU. In July 2004, the European Commission signed an agreement with Israel to participate in the EU`s GALILEO project for a global satellite navigation system. Since 2014, Israel has been a member of the European Scientific Organization (CERN) and is the only non-European member. The agreement with Israel provides for free trade rules for industrial goods and concession regimes for agricultural trade (a new agreement came into force in 2004) and opens the prospect of greater liberalization of trade in agricultural products and services from 2005. The Association Agreement was signed in Brussels on 20 November 1995 and came into force on 1 June 2000, after ratification by the parliaments of the 15 Member States, the European Parliament and the Knesset. It replaces the old cooperation agreement of 1975. A 2001 European Commission opinion confirmed the absence of preferential status for these products and provoked furious reactions from Israel, although the economic importance of Israeli products on the basis of the territories is very limited (100 million euros per year out of a total of 6 billion euros per year). Unlike in the EU, the United States allows duty-free products exported outside the territories under its 1985 free trade agreement.  In 2013, the EU adopted a binding directive which will require the Israeli government to declare, in future agreements with the EU, that settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, are located outside the State of Israel. The directive partly implements an earlier statement by EU foreign ministers  that “all agreements between the State of Israel and the EU must clearly and explicitly express their non-performance in the territories occupied by Israel in 1967.”  The guidelines prohibit the granting of EU grants, financing, prizes or scholarships to Israeli institutions, unless a transaction exclusion clause is included.